Discover Turkey

Geographical, FROM Socio-Cultural & Economic Data

Turkey is a transcontinental country located at the crossroads of Europe and Asia, with a diverse geographical, socio-cultural, and economic landscape. Here are some key data points related to these aspects:


  • Location: Turkey is situated mainly on the Anatolian Peninsula in Western Asia, with a smaller portion located on the Balkan Peninsula in Southeastern Europe.
  • It is bordered by eight countries: Greece and Bulgaria to the northwest, Georgia to the northeast, Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Iran to the east, Iraq and Syria to the south.
  • Area: Turkey has a total land area of approximately 783,356 square kilometers, making it the 37th largest country in the world: 81 provinces, 7 regions, 957 districts.
  • Capital: Ankara – Istanbul is the economic capital of the country.
  • 3 main economic and industrial areas: Marmara (Istanbul, Bursa, Kocaeli), Ankara and Izmir regions.
  • 3 hours from Paris, Moscow, and Iran, Turkey is located at the crossroads of 4 cultures: European, Russian, Iranian and Arab.
  • Topography: The country’s terrain is diverse, consisting of coastal plains, mountain ranges, plateaus, and fertile river valleys. The Taurus Mountains extend across southern Turkey, while the Pontic Mountains are located in the northern region.
  • Climate: Turkey experiences a variety of climatic conditions due to its size and geographical features. The coastal regions have a Mediterranean climate, characterized by hot, dry summers and mild, wet winters. Inland areas have a continental climate, with more extreme temperature variations between seasons.


  • Population: Turkey has a population of over 82 million people, making it one of the most populous countries in Europe. The population is predominantly composed of ethnic Turks, with smaller Kurdish, Arab, and other minority groups.
    • 90% of the population is urban (metropolises and cities).
    • More than 60% of the population under 35 years of age, (average age is 33 years).
  • Language: The official language of Turkey is Turkish, which is spoken by the majority of the population. Other minority languages, such as Kurdish, Arabic, and Laz, are also spoken in certain regions.
  • Cultural Heritage: Turkey has a rich cultural heritage influenced by various civilizations throughout history, including the Hittites, Greeks, Romans, Byzantines, and Ottomans. This heritage is reflected in its architecture, arts, music, cuisine, and traditions. Democratic and secular Republic since 1923.
  • Religion: Islam is the dominant religion in Turkey, with the majority of the population adhering to Sunni Islam. However, the country has a secular constitution, and it is home to diverse religious communities, including Christians, Alevis, and other religious minorities.


  • GDP: Turkey has a mixed economy and is classified as an emerging market. It has a Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of approximately $800 billion (as of 2021), ranking it among the top 20 economies in the world.
  • Key Sectors: Turkey’s economy is diverse and encompasses various sectors. Some of the key sectors include manufacturing (automotive, textiles, machinery), services (tourism, finance, telecommunications), agriculture (grains, fruits, vegetables), construction, and energy.
  • Trade: Turkey is a major player in international trade, with a focus on exports. Its primary trading partners include the European Union, the Middle East, and North Africa. Key export products include textiles, automotive parts, machinery, chemicals, and agricultural goods.
  • Tourism: Turkey is a popular tourist destination known for its historical sites, natural landscapes, and vibrant culture. Tourism plays a significant role in the country’s economy, attracting millions of visitors each year.

General SWOT analysis FROM of the Turkish market & Leading Sectors


  • Qualified and affordable labor: very well-trained engineers who are more affordable than in Europe.
  • Ability to adapt to demand and reactivity of the Turkish companies.
  • Geographical location: link between Europe and Asia.
  • Re-export platform: geographical proximity to France and Asia.
  • Quality of manufactured products (in compliance with European standards).
  • Customs agreements with the EU since 1996. 20% of the population has European purchasing power.
  • Young and urban population. Flexibility of sectors and country.
  • High-performance partnerships on auto/aero/agro, etc.

10 Good reasons to choose Turkey

  1. An economic success despite the economic and political crises.
  2. A large, young and innovative population constituting a large market.
  3. A qualified and competitive workforce in terms of cost.
  4. A liberal and reformist investment climate offering equal rights to foreign investors.
  5. Recent and developing infrastructures.
  6. A central geographical location on the East-West and North-South axes constituting an industrial and commercial hub.
  7. A strategic energy corridor and terminal for Europe.
  8. Trade facilitated through the Customs Union with the EU since 1996.
  9. Reduced taxes and incentives for investors.
  10. A large domestic market with growing sectors and significant needs.


  • Important underground market.
  • Legislative gaps in counterfeiting.
  • Soaring competition from China.
  • Too long payment terms.